Pre-Camp Research

What is caffeine made of?

Caffeine contains carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen.
It is made up of the elements Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen and Oxygen.
The chemical formula of caffeine is C8H10N4O2

What are alkaloids?

Alkaloids are a group of naturally occurring compounds which contain basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral and slightly acidic properties.

They are usually formed up of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen. But can also be formed up of other elements such as oxygen, and rarely, other elements such as chlorine or phosphorous.

Some synthetic compounds of similar structure are also attributed to alkaloids.

Organic compounds tend to be soluble in organic solvents. Polar materials, such as salts tend to be more soluble in polar solvents, such as water.

What are polar/non-polar?
Polar molecule is a bond between 2 non-metal atoms that have different electro-negativities and therefore have unequal sharing of the bonding electron pair
For example: In H-Cl, the electro-negativity of the Cl atom is 3.0, while that of the H atom is 2.1.
This results a bond where the electron pair is displaced toward the more electronegative atom. This atom then obtains a partial-negative charge while the less electronegative atom has a partial-positive charge.

A bond between 2 nonmetal atoms that have the same electronegativity and therefore have equal sharing of the bonding electron pair
Example: In H-H each H atom has an electronegativity value of 2.1, therefore the covalent bond between them is considered non-polar

It is very rare for a solidifying system to be composed of a single, highly pure element or compound. The liquid normally contains other elements or compounds in solution, i.e. solutes, present either as deliberate additions or as inadvertent impurities. Redistribution of such solute affects the nature of the process and the microstructure of the product.

Attention centres on the partitioning of solute at an advancing solidification front. Even if the system as a whole is not in thermodynamic equilibrium, this can normally be assumed to apply at the interface itself (i.e. the kinetic undercooling is small).

Hydrophilic are liquids which mixes with water easily. Dissolves likes and water-like substances are also hydrophilic. Hydrophobic are liquids like oils and fats.

Separating Funnel

Difference between Büchner filtration and filter
A Büchner funnel is a piece of laboratory equipment used in suction filtration, which is traditionally made of porcelain, but glass and plastic funnels are also available. On top of the funnel-shaped part there is a cylinder with a perforated plate separating it from the funnel.